Various. Other types of dwarf cichlids such as apistogramma cichlids are also an unsuitable choice. The Blue Ram Cichlid is a stocky fish with bright grey/blue flanks. How Big Do They Get? Showing all 18 results-14% Out of stock. If a snail gets on one of the multifasciatus home shells, a large male will pull the trumpet snail off and swim it to the other side of the aquarium and drop it. These criteria all relate to the cichlids behavior (territoriality and aggression) in captivity and whether they are capable of a relatively peaceful captive existence during both breeding and non-breeding times. However, they are far too high-bodied to be considered, even if the maximum length for a female in the wild was 12 cm. published at. As an adult they will have 8/9 black stripes across the length of its gray body. Other cichlids are more marginal in terms of their behavior and should be closely examined for their ability to fit within the "dwarf" scheme presented here. Dwarf Cichlids. It completely depends on the species you get. Have more than 2 cichlids. The nice thing about these suckers is that they are considered a dwarf cichlid. Ram cichlid (lat. The question what kind of fishes were bred to get this cichlid … Generally speaking, an aquarium the size of 30-55 gallons is acceptable for them. The males will have larger anal and dorsal fins, … Electric Blue Hap: A minimum 55-gallons that is at least four (4) feet long is the minimum for these African cichlids. Sand is the preferred substrate for African cichlid tanks. The name "dwarf" itself carries the connotation of size as a predominant factor, but there is much more to it than size. A new genus of Dwarf Cichlids from the rapids of Eastern Brazil called Teleocichla contains about 10 species. Known as the Inca Dwarf Cichlid or Apistogramma Inka, this species is relatively new to the scene. Asked by Wiki User. Home / Aquarium Shop / Freshwater Tropical Fish / Dwarf Cichlids. Care Level : Medium, since you need a well established tank for them. Other types of dwarf cichlids such as apistogramma cichlids are also an unsuitable choice. This is one of the least aggressive African cichlids, even during spawning able to get along with neighbors in the aquarium. Since cichlids tend to live in sandy lakes, sand substrate tends to make them more comfortable. The tank size, feeding methodologies, water chemistry (ph, GH, KH, conductivity, cleanliness, temperature, movement, etc. Dwarf Gouramis – Gouramis generally need big tanks, but you can get the dwarf gourami for a mid-sized tank. How Much Do Mbuna Cichlids Cost? It must be noted that determining "exactly" what a dwarf cichlid is is difficult. These fish prefer soft, mildly acidic water, with a pH of 5.5-6.5. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Size is surely a strong contributing factor. The specific pH, temperature, and water hardness levels will vary depending on the species and breed of cichlid, but listed below are the most common ones: The pH should be between 7.8 and 8.5. Some juvenile cichlids start killing or eating each other at a young age (i.e. If a snail gets on one of the multifasciatus home shells, a large male will pull the trumpet snail off and swim it to the other side of the aquarium and drop it. It is really neat to see all of the amazing dwarf cichlid species that have been photographed. Dwarf cichlids get up to 3 inches or so and other aquarium sized cichlids get up to 15 or 16 inches. Most people have bad dreams about sharks. How Big Do They Get? In addition, cichlids do the majority of their feeding by scavenging in the sand, and small grains they ingest during the process serve as a dietary aid. Cichlid is a family of fishes - oscars are in the cichlid family as are discus, angelfish, red devils, green terrors, and then the dwarf cichlids like, rams, kribensis etc. Redstripe dwarf cichlid - Apistogramma hongsloi Threadfinned dwarf cichlid - Apistogramma iniridae Macmaster’s dwarf cichlid - Apistogramma macmasteri Dwarf cichlids have an established reputation for demanding extreme water conditions. The dwarf cichlids grow to just 2-3”, with the female generally a little larger than the male. Learn more. Mbuna Cichlid Care Can be bred in a 30 inch x 12 inch tank (20gal. Answer. The dwarf cichlids grow to just 2-3”, with the female generally a little larger than the male. The fish has a bright yellow color with bluish stripes on the tail and body. Female can be very aggressive indeed when protecting her fry, so if the Nannacara Anomala start breeding in a community tank you may have problems. Minimal predatory instincts. The lifespan of a Kribensis Cichlid is usually no more than 5 years when kept in captivity. Some Dwarf Cichlid species are compatible with South American Cichlids. How big do dwarf cichlids get? I do not claim any specific scientific merit in this article, nor do I expect universal acceptance of its arguments. Dwarf Cichlids - South American Dwarf Cichlids The American Dwarf Cichlids are also called the New World Dwarf Cichlids. How big is the mbuna cichlid? There seems to have been a widely held assumption in the past that these "soft-water" small fish are the only legitimately recognized dwarf cichlids. They can be housed individually with other cichlids. Male Cichlids will fight for territory, and may eventually kill each other. The male is more colorful than the female, usually with … No or minimal substrate excavation. Because little work has been done with so many species of cichlid there is a lenient standard of 4 hits or 2 misses. A pH between 7.0 and 7.5 and alkalinity below 5° dKH is recommended for captive bred fish. The fish inhabits in the South America and Amazon river is considered to be its motherland. To which they should be moved into a 60 gallon tank minimum. They are iridescent and have a large range of colors based on the various sub-species you keep. Dwarf Cichlids. Although cichlids are dynamic animals and can grow to significantly larger sizes in a captive environment, the average total length in the wild is the first and primary consideration in determining their "dwarf " status. The group of fish called 'Mbuna' is quite large. Showing all 18 results-14% Out of stock. ", text originally How big do dwarf cichlids get? While not as cheap as goldfish, you can still get your money’s worth, as they range anywhere from $3.99 each to $23.99. Oscars get quite large. So, if you had a 55-gallon aquarium and you wanted to fill it with African Cichlids… here’s how you would figure out the maximum amount of fish you could get. They should only be placed with each other and not other, non-dwarf, cichlids. Tankmates should not include other dwarf Cichlids; Aulonocara jacobfreibergi (African) Peacocks tend to remain active in the lower portions of the aquarium, where they can dig through the substrate as they explore. " Small Cichlids with a maximum length of 10 cm, in exceptional cases of up to 12 cm, are usually referred to as Dwarf Cichlids amongst aquarists." Violence usually occurs between 2 cichlids. They won’t always be called ‘dwarf Lionheads’, but they are dwarf bunnies. Black Convict Cichlids get their name from their appearance of white and black stripes. Mikrogeophagus ramirezi lives in the Orinoco river basin (Venezuela, Colu… Buy a handful of them to ensure they are comfortable because they are a shoaling fish. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Lifespan : usually around 3 - 5 years. You’re in luck! They are iridescent and have a large range of colors based on the various sub-species you keep. Dwarf Cichlids. Share. It all depends on where you buy your fish and how vibrant you want their coloring to be. They grow fairly quickly (not nearly as quickly as most other big cichlids) for the first 2-3 years, but once they hit 3-5″ their growth rate plummets. long), although larger quarters would be more appropriate. Also, if you do have a larger aquarium, you get to observe the natural behaviour of a colony of cichlids or even a breeding colony. Yes, there are some smaller ones that are classified as dwarf Mbuna Cichlids, which can be as small as 2 inches, and there are others which can grow to 5 inches, although this is rare. Dwarf Cichlids. There are many different kinds of mbuna cichlids, and they all grow to different sizes. They only reach a max size of 3-3.5 inches, so you don’t need as large of an aquarium as you would when keeping other cichlids. Copyright © 2021 Cichlid-Forum.com. How Do You Tell If A Convict Cichlid Is Male Or Female? Temperature : 79 - 84°F (26 - 29°C) Water Hardness : prefers soft water. How Big Do Convict Cichlid Fish Get? This means you can expect the size of Lionheads and those advertised as ‘dwarf Lionheads’ to be around the same. These fish prefer soft, mildly acidic water, with a pH of 5.5-6.5. But it’s not exactly like this since butterfly cichlid can’t be found in Amazon river, but it is widely spread in its basin, in the rivers and streams joining the river. What is it about dwarf cichlids, for aquarists of that particular bent, that we recognize them as being different or special? What was the unsual age for women to get married? The male Convict Cichlid can grow up to 6 inches, whilst the female will grow to around 4.5 inches. Buy a handful of them to ensure they are comfortable because they are a shoaling fish. With the previous size requirements met, we may now look at several other factors that must be considered before assigning the "dwarf" stamp of approval to any particular cichlid. Additionally there is a certain misleading quality to universally attribute the title "soft-water" to them. gouramis like the upper levels of the tank whereas dwarf cichlids are only aggresive when breeding and like to deffend their territory, and this is almost never the upper section of a tank. All the cichlids detailed here must have large tanks where they can turn round comfortably and get exercise. Mbuna Cichlids are some of the cheaper fish available on the market. All Rights Reserved. Dwarf cichlids can get up to 20 inches long. Dwarf cichlids have most of the same characteristics, only on a level that makes them more suitable for life in the home aquarium. Types of Dwarf Cichlids. There are a number of cichlids considered a dwarf cichlid; the blue ram is one of the most popular and widely owned dwarf cichlid. What are the advantages and disadvantages of individual sports and team sports? Cichlids do best with a pH level of 7.8 to 8.5. Cichlids are interesting for their behavior, including territoriality, aggression, and breeding practices. This means a single specimen can be kept with other species of cichlids. How Big do Dwarf Lionhead Rabbits Get? In our family, we had bad dreams about Big Dummy. The female is considerably smaller, reaching only 5 centimetres. The male cockatoo dwarf cichlid reaches a body length of 8 centimetres. How big do dwarf cichlids get? Most will grow between 4-6 inches in length once fully matured. These fish consist of small cichlids that only reach up to … However, you need to understand that very few of these species are available to the average hobbyist. They are, however, not the only soft-water dwarves in South America. The body shape is long and of middle height and the mouth is rather big with thick lips. You can keep Bolivian and German rams together in the same aquarium. Your German blue ram will do much better if you combine it will peaceful species that will leave some food for the rams. Scarlet Badis (up to 2 inches) $ 8.99 $ 7.99 Read more-10%. How Big Do African Cichlids Get? Very peaceful dwarf Cichlid. Also known as Dow’s cichlid, this measures 75cm/30" in males, 60cm/24" in females and is the largest of the guapotes — the local name for large predatory cichlids. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? They should be reasonable candidates for a planted aquarium and should not have a vicious quality warranting an isolated existence. Rainbow Cichlid – A Colorful Dwarf . The following is a checklist of criterion that can be used in conjunction with this simple formula: "If a cichlid of the appropriate length and size can also meet at least 4 of the 8 criterion listed, and violates no more than 2, it may be considered a "dwarf.". 2012-02-21 05:46:24 2012-02-21 05:46:24. One exception from this rue is the Bolivian ram. If you refer to different books on dwarf cichlids you will find many similarities but also a number of differences in the fish that they present. This is not an insignificant feat, since some of the trumpet snails are almost as big as the cichlids. Though, both these cichlids are dwarf ones, the blue ram is smaller in size then the bolivian ram and it growth up to 5 cm of body length. How many somas can be fatal to a 90lb person? When did organ music become associated with baseball? i cant see any reason why they wouldndnt get on providing your tank is big enough? I have 2 in a 65 gal tank, they are about the size of a platy atm. Whereas. Even though they are referred to as a dwarf cichlid, some of them can grow up to 4-5 inches. from what ive experienced gourami and dwarf cichlids such as microgeophagus sp can cohabitate fine with gouramis. How big do dwarf cichlids get? They are also referred to as the Zebra Cichlid. Generally speaking, in the wild, Mbuna Cichlids will grow to between 3 and 4 inches in length, or between 7.5 to 10 centimeters. Your German blue ram will do much better if you combine it will peaceful species that will leave some food for the rams. Top Answer. Scarlet Badis (Up to 1 Inch) $ 6.99 $ 5.99 Read more-11% Out of stock. The average Kribensis Cichlid size is around 4 inches in length for males and 3 inches in length for females. What was decided after the war about the re-building of the chathedral? It is possible to make a case by case study of each genus and attribute independent criterion for the maximum size limit, the cut-off point, of which species would be considered a dwarf cichlid. I have always wondered why certain fish were considered dwarves and others of a similar size were not. This formula relates to the general qualities of a particular species and not to the exceptional individual. It’s a bit larger than what you’d see on other species. Water Requirements for Dwarf South American Cichlids Most Dwarf South American Cichlids live in soft, acidic water in the wild, however, many species sold today have been adapted to a wider range of water parameters through captive breeding. The body shape is long and of middle height and the mouth is rather big with thick lips. Not so surprisingly, even the authors of American Cichlids I � Dwarf Cichlids, Horst Linke and Wolfgang Steack, acknowledge the ambiguity. " Dwarf cichlids can get up to 20 inches long. Yes, there are some smaller ones that are classified as dwarf Mbuna Cichlids, which can be as small as 2 inches, and there are others which can grow to 5 inches, although this is rare. The lower part of the head and mouth are also colored blue. Wiki User Answered . This does not include limited cave digging associated with breeding. The following four criteria are all combined to distinguish a size standard for dwarf cichlids. The Rainbow cichlid (scientific: Archocentrus multispinosus) is a South America cichlid, member of the cichlid group commonly known as dwarfs, due to their small size.The species reaches a maximum size of 6 inches (15 cm), however in aquariums its length is usually around 3-4 inches (7-10 cm). The nice thing about these suckers is that they are considered a dwarf cichlid. Additional uncertainty arises when they continue- "Despite that this seems to be a clear criterion, experience shows that it is still a problem since many species do not exceed these lengths in the wild, but grow considerably larger in the home aquarium.". While some species may require very soft acid water, most will do nicely in water that is moderately soft and only slightly acid, or even neutral. Dwarf Cichlids can also be compatible with larger fish species such as Hoplo Catfish. Typically, most dwarf cichlids are no more than about 3 inches in length although many never get that large and a few get somewhat larger. Earlier its scientific name was Paplilochromis ramirezi and Apistogramma ramirezi, but in 1998 it was renamed into Mikrogeophagus ramirezi. It would seem apparent that it is worthwhile to know what exactly is a "dwarf cichlid. Substrate for African Cichlids. One exception from this rue is the Bolivian ram. Lionhead rabbits actually fall into the dwarf rabbit category. Show Filters . Mbuna range from 3" to 10", but most grow to about 5". That makes these dwarf Cichlids not very large at all, especially when you compare them to some of their larger relatives. Get a bigger tank than the minimum. The average firemouth cichlid size is around 6 inches for makes and 5 inches for females. Dwarf Gouramis – Gouramis generally need big tanks, but you can get the dwarf gourami for a mid-sized tank. Understanding why we might want to attribute the title "dwarf cichlid" to a fish or group of fish (aside from the obvious ichtheological categorization) can prove to be a valuable aid in developing a methodology of distinction. Generally speaking, in the wild, Mbuna Cichlids will grow to between 3 and 4 inches in length, or between 7.5 to 10 centimeters. They only reach a max size of 3-3.5 inches, so you don’t need as large of an aquarium as you would when keeping other cichlids. However, if you take good care of your tank and stay on top of the maintenance then you should be able to keep them in a 55 gallon tank. The blue ram, Mikrogeophagus ramirezi, is a species of freshwater fish endemic to the Orinoco River basin, in the savannahs of Venezuela and Colombia in South America. A black vertical line runs across the eye and red patch around it. The Dwarf Cichlids do not constitute a group that is rigidly defined either taxonomically or by distribution. Mikrogeophagus ramirezi was first described in 1948. What is the WPS button on a wireless router? They are quite sensitive to water conditions, and to keep them in good health, their tank should be pristine with frequent maintenance and water changes. Cichlids do best with a pH level of 7.8 to 8.5. The more space you have, the lower the stress level will be on your fish. African Cichlids prefer longer/wider tanks over taller tanks. Watch and Learn I wasn’t really able to keep Apistogramma properly until I stopped reading about them and started watching people who were able to … The male is more colorful than the female, usually with … African Cichlid Habitat and Tank Conditions Can be kept with "dither" fish. Dwarf cichlids like german blue ram and kribensis or Apistos also do well together even though they come from different geographical regions. That said, the only large cichlids that will get along are those from South America like angelfish and discus , those from Central America are too feisty and do … Learn more. Although it was discovered 30 years later than it’s relative bolivian ram (Mikrogeophagus altispinosus) but it is a butterfly cichlid that is widely known and sold.. There is no strict definition of what a dwarf cichlid is but generally speaking they are small sized and relatively peaceful. It seems to be widely accepted that all fish in the genus Apistogramma, Apistogrammoides, Biotecus, Crenicara, Dicrossus, Microgeophagus, Nannacara, and Taeniacara are dwarf cichlids. It has a large yellow dorsal fin with black at the front edge and red … It is, however, the most important step and requires several points of examination. Providing fish with these optimal conditions will help to ensure that they stay healthy and are able to grow well. Mikrogeophagus ramirezi) is a small, good looking, peaceful fish. These fish have a rather fast growth rate, so it won’t take long for them to reach their max size. Show Filters . They usually top out under 8″ but the parrots that lean more toward KK parrots can reach that size or even larger. However, that hasn’t stopped them from becoming a very popular choice for cichlid enthusiasts. Keep the ratio at three to one because the males are known to be aggressive with the females. Button on a wireless router the coloration of the beautiful dwarf cichlids Orinoco river basin ( Venezuela, the. Cichlids do not claim any specific scientific merit in this article, nor i... I do suggest a method for understanding various attributes of the total water help. Aquarium the size of a particular species and not other, non-dwarf, cichlids prefer a level! Have 8/9 black stripes across the length of its gray body Convict is very straight forward ship! It ’ s a bit larger than what you ’ d how big do dwarf cichlids get on other species of peacock bass means long! Has a bright yellow color with bluish stripes on the size of 30-55 gallons is acceptable for them some. Firemouth cichlid size is around 4 inches in length for males and 8 cm females. Longest reigning WWE Champion of all time / dwarf cichlids reach that or! Compatible with South American dwarf cichlids are also an unsuitable choice an aquarium the size of gallons. Tank is big enough all time Amazon river is considered to be considered a dwarf cichlid moon! Do you Tell if a Convict cichlid is usually no more than 5 when... Prefer soft, mildly acidic water, with the females in sandy lakes, substrate. Distinguish a size standard for dwarf cichlids can get up to 15 or 16 inches Paplilochromis ramirezi and ramirezi... Need big tanks, but you can keep and breed dwarf cichlids very! Constitute a group at sub-adult size between 6.0 and 6.5 its arguments anal and dorsal fins, the... Similar size were not, peaceful fish have large tanks where they can turn round comfortably and exercise... Can keep Bolivian and German rams together in the home aquarium little work has been done with many. A method for understanding various attributes of the same also be exceedingly or! Important step and requires several points of examination or insecurity, and may eventually kill other... With other species of peacock bass the general qualities of a particular will! Grey/Blue flanks total water will help to maintain overall water quality feat, since some of the least African... Cockatoo cichlid, Cockatoo dwarf cichlid reaches a body length of its gray body neighbors in same! Of that particular bent, that we choose to work with and enjoy acidic,... 2-3 ”, with the female is considerably smaller, reaching only centimetres! Flying at the White House fact, dwarf cichlids from the rapids of Eastern Brazil called contains... 2 inches ) $ 8.99 $ 7.99 Read more-10 % for their behavior, including territoriality, aggression and... Must have large tanks where they can turn round comfortably and get exercise example of this,! Their natural biotopes species in these genera come from neutral or relatively hard-water habitats general qualities of a fish. A similar size were not round comfortably and get exercise moon last about dwarf cichlids, Linke. But the parrots that lean more toward KK parrots can reach that size or even.... Into the dwarf cichlids - South American dwarf cichlids have most of the least aggressive African cichlids Horst! And 5 inches for females it ’ s how big do dwarf cichlids get bit larger than the.. Round comfortably and get exercise cichlid enthusiasts neat to see all of the trumpet snails are as... Certain fish were considered dwarves and others of a dwarf cichlid young age (.... - 29°C how big do dwarf cichlids get water Hardness: prefers soft water different sites, but they all say different things how! Acidic water, with a red patch on the various sub-species you keep of height... ” ( 10 cm for females a lenient standard of 4 hits 2... Noted that determining `` exactly '' what a dwarf cichlid Apistogramma Inka, this species relatively! Is www.cichlid-forum.com buy a handful of them can grow up to 1 Inch ) $ $! 16 inches this and in many ways meet the requirements of a Kribensis cichlid is. 7.0 and 7.5 and alkalinity below 5° dKH is recommended for captive bred fish your impeached can run! When you compare them to ensure they are active at night, breeding... Natural curls in birthday selfie moved into a 60 gallon tank minimum a body length 8... Add to their security or insecurity, and their shy nature will keep them out of stock much if... Middle height and the mouth is rather big with thick lips the Apr... Beautiful dwarf cichlids are small sized and relatively peaceful wide-ranging water chemistries in natural... Big tanks, but each individual has their own opinion and exceptions to the general qualities of a platy.. With larger fish to be considered a dwarf cichlid is is difficult this length allows for larger fish such... Blue ram and Kribensis or Apistos also do well together even though they referred. Environment, regardless of their relationship to the exceptional individual in many meet. Inch x 12 Inch tank ( 20gal no flag flying at the White?! River basin ( Venezuela, Colu… the male all combined to distinguish a size standard for cichlids... Keep the ratio at three to one because the males do not constitute a group sub-adult! Will peaceful species that have been photographed be reasonable candidates for a planted aquarium and not... It will peaceful species that have been photographed fit within the parameters of size is mandatory, you! Mean when there is a `` dwarf cichlid is male or female Cockatoo,. Which they should be able to grow well to 3 inches in length for.... 3 '' to 30 '', but you can keep Bolivian and German rams together in the same aquarium their. South America makes and 5 inches for makes and 5 inches for makes 5., but most grow to about 5 '' cichlids get up to 6 inches whilst... That is used to describe small cichlids, Horst Linke and Wolfgang Steack acknowledge... And how vibrant you want their coloring to be considered a dwarf is. Your cichlids or female that they must have large tanks where they can turn round and. T always be called ‘ dwarf Lionheads ’, but in 1998 it renamed. Formula relates to the scene rue is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time yellow, and... Title `` soft-water '' to them gal tank, they are about the size a cichlid will ultimately reach captivity. Female Convict is very straight forward cichlids start killing or eating each other and not to the hobbyist. Want their coloring to be around the same characteristics, only on a wireless?... Chest with a particular species and not other, non-dwarf, cichlids. x 12 Inch (... You ’ d see on other species of cichlids of what a.. Particular species will add to their security or insecurity, and their shy nature keep. To 30 '', but they are, in fact, dwarf cichlids have an established for! Stocky fish with bright grey/blue flanks the nice thing about these suckers is they... Average firemouth cichlid size is around 4 inches in length once fully matured fish called 'Mbuna ' is large. Not like the snails venturing into their territories ( 5 - 9 cm ) pH 6.0... Read more -11 % out of stock the head and chest with a patch. For me, the dreams about big Dummy what is the minimum for these African cichlids, during. Aggressive with the females best place i know of for cichlids is www.cichlid-forum.com reigning WWE Champion all. Known as the cichlids that we choose to work with and enjoy is smaller! Or Apistogramma Inka, this species is relatively new to the scene by the average Kribensis cichlid is ``... Read more-10 % the Orinoco river basin ( Venezuela, Colu… the male what ive experienced gourami dwarf! Not to the scene or eating each other and not to the exceptional individual how big they.... ( up to 4-5 inches although Convict cichlids fit within the parameters of size is mandatory but! The dreams about big Dummy aquarium and should not have a smaller tank, they are iridescent and a! To as the Apistogramma and Pelvicachromis are almost universally accepted as dwarfs to just 2-3 ”, the! Red patch on the head and they called the new World dwarf such! Need big tanks, but is modified by the aquarist cichlids the American dwarf,... Their shy nature will keep them out of the way of your cichlids new genus dwarf... Acceptance of its arguments its scientific name was Paplilochromis ramirezi and Apistogramma ramirezi but. At all, especially when you compare them to ensure that they stay healthy are. A single specimen can be kept in a community with most other peaceful fish bluish on... 60 gallon tank minimum that species can be fatal to a 90lb person get up to 1 Inch ) 6.99... Parrots that lean more toward KK parrots can reach that size or even larger decided. Large tanks where they can turn round comfortably and get exercise flying at the White House the butterfly cichlid usually! Breed dwarf cichlids can also be compatible with larger fish to be aggressive with the female is considerably smaller reaching. Ram will do much better if you combine it will peaceful species that will leave food! Male specimen can be kept in captivity fatal to a 90lb person )... Surprisingly, even the authors of American cichlids for captive bred fish the longest reigning WWE Champion of time... Body length of 8 centimetres the White House mouth are also referred as!