READ: Chemical Weathering - Definition, Processes and Types For that, they have considered this criterion as of the ‘more is better’ kind. In the WEPP erosion model, the interrill sediment delivery is adjusted to account for the effects of ground cover, dead roots, live roots, and canopy cover. J.B. Grau, ... J.J. Martín, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. There are three versions of the model: mountain slope, watershed, and grid. Both are effectively stopped by an erosion mat. Wind erosion is caused by the action of the wind on the soil surface and is the process by which fine soil particles are carried away. Soil removed from the field with the harvested crop can be considerable for root crops such as potatoes, sugar beets, and carrots. The model requires huge data on various variables for a good implementation; the required climatic data includes rainfall, its peak and duration, temperature data, wind velocity and direction, solar radiation, snowfall and snowmelt. Rainwater harvesting is the practice of collecting and storing rain for reuse, rather than letting the water run off and be absorbed into the ground or channeled into drains, streams, or rivers. J.F. Representation of hillslope in WEPP erosion model. Retrieved from: soilerosion.net (2017) England. The University of Maryland University College notes that one inch of rain water running off from the roof of a 1,500 square foot building produces 935 gallons of water. His results confirmed that erosion rates from conventional agriculture fields are one to two orders of magnitude greater than those of soil production. Erosion by water begins with a drop of rain. Excessive erosion can threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. Inter-rill erosion describes the movement of topsoil by rainfall and its resultant surface flow. The model uses a daily time step and simulates the process of plant growth, soil properties and hydrologic processes. Rainfall – Rainfall can cause erosion when the rain hits the surface of the Earth. Similarly, it is known as rain erosion to a form of water erosion caused by rain. Therefore soil wind erosion and soil texture are not always directly related. These results confirm the hypothesis that wind-driven rain potentially produces an increase in soil erosion rates. There are many different forces in nature that cause erosion. D.A. Water erosion (WE) is very important because of the interaction between natural and socioeconomic conditions. Studies have shown that raindrops fall at speeds of up to 20 mph and can shed particles of earth up to a distance of one and a half meters horizontally and half a meter vertically. Instead, it runs over the land. Water erosion, in general, causes an estimated loss of four billion tons of land each year. The authors have considered that it would be satisfactory to give employment to the majority of the population. WEPP model may also be executed in a single-storm mode, although it is very effective when used as a continuous simulation model. If the erosion on … Factors Affecting Soil Erosion Caused By Water 3. Wind and water erosion are the main soil deterioration processes in different zones. Retrieved from: astromia.com. Wind and water erosion are not the only means by which soil can be moved beyond the boundaries of a field. Certain points on the hillslope may experience detachment during some rainfall events and deposition during other events. Erosion from agriculture also has indirect effects on river desiccation, groundwater depletion, water pollution, sedimentation, salinization, and salt-water intrusion (Atapattu and Kodituwakku, 2009). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The water erosion rates observed during six simulated sequences that involved 18–30-min rainfalls during the Jutland field campaign of 2011 are presented in Fig. Water erosion is very simplistically speaking caused by rainfall, river flow, waves (wave action, hydraulic action and abrasion), corrosion, glacier movement, thawing, etc., while wind erosion is caused by wind picking up loose particles (deflation) that batter the ground as they fly by (abrasion), causing additional particles to become loose and fly away. Rainfall characteristics, soil factors, topography, climate, and land use are important elements affecting soil erosion. Their results highlighted the effect of land use, with agricultural lands yielding the highest erosion rates. I. McIvor, ... Z. Pu, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014. Tolhurst, T.J., Friend, P.L., Watts, C."The effects of rain on the erosion threshold of intertidal cohesive sediments". Sediment delivery from the interrill areas is considered to be proportional to the square of rainfall intensity, with the constant of proportionality being the interrill erodibility parameter. Sediments deposited along the road due to soil erosion by water in the surrounding vineyards in Moixent, Valecia province (Spain). "Rain Erosion Damages"(2017) Poly Tech A / S Recovered from: ainerosion.com. Water is an object that is powerful enough to move materials that are in the ground or on the surface of the soil. A drop of six millimeters weighs 216 times more than a drop of a millimeter. This criterion is considered as ‘more is better.’, The relative economical benefits using each alternative in a period of 25 years have been obtained. They are indicative of high spatial variability of soil and surface properties between the test plots (Fister et al., 2013). (2017) Retrieved from: vanderbilt.edu. Soil erosion by water (aka 'water erosion') is the result of rain detaching and transporting vulnerable soil, either directly by means of rainsplashor indirectly by rill and gully erosion. As the water travels it takes the soil particles with it. Since this is a tedious task, expert systems have been developed for the assistance of a user. Under the pressures of overgrazing, deforestation, and irrational reclamation for agriculture production purpose, vegetation was degraded and destroyed in desertification-prone land areas, steppes were overgrazed and degraded in large quantity, soil was salinized and deteriorated, and soil/water conservative capacity was reduced and lost in many affected developing countries due to floods, drought, and other natural disasters. It takes about 20 years to create that amount of soil by natural processes. The Water Erosion and Prediction Project (WEPP) model was developed as a cooperative effort of four organisations with the leading role for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In order to prevent erosion and save soil, you need to understand the different types of erosion that can occur. One of the causes is water. Jain, V.P. The channel erosion and grid erosion is modelled using hydraulic concepts. Arrows showing increasing trend are in accordance to the hypotheses and arrows showing decreasing trend indicate a contrary development. Dr Favis-Mortlock, D."Soil Erosion by Water"(April 2017) The Soil Erosion Site. ), P. Tarolli, ... Wenfang CAO, in Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene, 2018. This is called splash erosion. The CO 2 combines with water to form carbonic acid. From the mechanical point of view, work must be done to erode soil and the source of energy to perform this work must be from rain drop impact and runoff in the water erosion process. Now imagine when heavy rain falls, millions of rain drops fall on the soil for many days, causing considerable soil erosion. As in the case of water erosion, models that examine the factors important in wind erosion are useful in predicting wind erosion (Saxton et al., 2000). When mixed with the water of the drops and, as the water sinks in the soil, these particles clog the pores in the soil that normally absorbs the rainwater. This criterion has been considered as of the ‘more is worst’ kind. As it starts to rain the force of a raindrop can pick up and loosen soil particles. Field equipment can track soil into or out of a field, but this does not likely represent a significant loss or gain of soil. Indeed erosion rates from agriculture are among the highest rates found for land uses (García-Ruiz and Lana-Renault, 2011). "The erosion of the terrestrial surface"(2017) Educational Astronomy. The slightly acidic water sinks into the ground and moves through pore spaces in soil and cracks and fractures in rock. The berm will keep the water in the rain garden, so has to be well-compacted, around 30cm (1ft) wide and 10cm (6in) in height Leave a notch in the berm, with a gravel-filled channel for the water to exit into a conventional drainage system If the area is sloping, the top … The model carries out a simulation of the physical processes that cover erosion. The net deposition is computed when the sediment load, G, is greater than the sediment transport capacity, Tc. C. Longjun, in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), 2019. The figures included in this criterion have been obtained from the results of different forums and meetings with institutions, organizations, and native people (Grau, 2003). Firstly the mats have high surface cover to prevent the rain drops from pounding into the soil. Smaller particles remain suspended in air for longer periods of time and are therefore more likely to travel much longer distances. Fig. The model calculates both detachment and deposition. Gradual threats. Water erosion is caused by the detachment and transport of soil by rainfall, runoff, melting snow or ice, and irrigation. Rainfall produces four types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion. These soil surfaces are not exposed to the constant hydraulic forces of rivers and channels, but the occasional wetting and drying erosion forces from wind, rain and gravity. In the second stage, the loose particles are moved downslope, commonly by sheetflooding. Núñez Solís, J. Surface residue, for example, plays an important role in terms of predicting the amount of soil lost during a given rainfall event. A hillslope element can drain into a channel either at the headwaters or laterally, or into an impoundment. Prediction of the effects of land use and management practices on erosion control are perhaps the most important part of an erosion prediction tool if the purpose is to plan land and farm management systems to control erosion. Rainwater absorbs carbon dioxide (CO 2) as it falls. In the WEPP watershed model, hillslope elements can contain up to 10 overland flow sub-elements which may represent changes in cropping patterns (strip cropping), soil variation in the downslope direction, different land use patterns, or changes in grazing intensities. As a result, the soil becomes crusty and impermeable. The parameters used by the hydrology and erosion components of the model that must be input by the user include soil conditions for the day of the rainfall event, crop canopy, surface residue, days since last disturbance, surface random roughness, oriented roughness, etc. Rills are the shallow drainage lines that are … This drag can occur diffusely (barely perceptible) or even. (1989) and USDA (1989). Water action due to rain erodes the soil and causes activities like gully, rill, and stream erosion leading to the downstream effects of flooding and sedimentation. The grid version is used for large areas which need not be within one watershed. Such an erosion, where a bit of soil is scraped away, due to each falling raindrop, is called Splash erosion. Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion. The irrigation component calculates erosion and deposition on border irrigation areas. Ground Water Erosion and Deposition. In addition to the cost of this impact, eutrophication of watercourses and lakes, destruction of wildlife, sedimentation of dams, reservoirs, rivers and flood damage are all significant, as are the losses Agricultural activities. By using this website or by closing this dialog you agree with the conditions described. For example, hills and ridges formed by erosion tend to have smoothly rounded ridges that are distinct from the sharper profiles created by other forms of water erosion. 4 shows an example of soil erosion in a vineyard located in Spain. It can consider processes, such as infiltration, sediment transport and deposition, evaporation, transpiration, snow melt, residue and canopy effects on soil detachment, and contour effects. As the runoff flows, it may pick up loose material on the surface, such as bits of soil and sand. The channel component calculates erosion and deposition within concentrated flow areas which can be represented as permanent channels or ephemeral gullies. Water is the main cause of erosion on Earth, being one of the most powerful forces on the planet. Like water erosion, wind erosion is significantly influenced by the amount of vegetation cover; therefore, any activity that removes vegetation, such as agriculture, deforestation, or other land degradation processes, can increase wind erosion. Water erosion is the removal of soil by water and transportation of the eroded materials away from the point of removal. We use cookies to provide our online service. If allowed to continue, loss of vegetation, habitat and land will occur. This reflects the ability of fine particles to form soil large aggregates that hold the soil in place during high wind events. 12.10. Among the cultivated lands, vineyards deserve a particular attention because, aside from representing one of the most important crops for income and employment, they also have proven to be the form of agricultural use that causes one of the highest soil losses (Prosdocimi et al., 2016). This criterion is considered as ‘more is better.’, By each alternative, the needs of WR have been considered. Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and … S.K. Rain erosion Rain erosion causes very particular forms. Vanderbilt's Online Research Magazine. Many deep-rooted plants, which protect the soil from erosion, depend more on groundwater than on surface water. How to Prevent Water Erosion. Crimmins, in Environmental and Pollution Science (Third Edition), 2019. In five out of six cases, erosion during the third run, which includes the influence of wind on raindrops, was significantly increased compared to the second rainfall without wind. The pictures taken in Sampford Peverell, Devon, show severe soil erosion on a steep field that was said to have contained too few crops prior to the heavy winter rain. The net soil detachment in rills is calculated for the case when hydraulic shear stress exceeds the critical shear stress of the soil and when sediment load is less than the sediment transport capacity. Splash Erosion. Whether you’re worried about erosion due to rain, a nearby river, or your irrigation system, it is a concern that many homeowners and business owners have, even in Bakersfield. Rill Erosion. Water droplets in their downward path impact the ground and pluck particles, generating a tiny form of laminar erosion. Types of Soil Erosion Caused by Water 2. Therefore, the heavier the precipitation, the larger the drops. Globally, 45.2% of the desertification-prone land areas are affected by soil degradation process of water erosion, and 41.8% by soil degradation of wind erosion. Soil water erosion on cultivated lands represents a severe threat to soil resources in the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas, due to their topographic, edaphic, and climatic conditions (Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Laminar erosion consists of the entrainment of soil particles by rainwater in the direction of the slope. Although generally convincing, test sequence number three (FOU 3) shows that other factors are able to reduce erosion almost entirely. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The theory of the model has been described in detail by Finkner et al. In rivers and estuaries, the erosion of banks is caused by the scouring action of the moving water, particularly in times of flood and, in the case of estuaries, also by the tidal flow on the ebb tide when river and tidewater combine in their erosive action. When a lot of rain falls in a short period of time, much of the water is unable to soak into the ground. Water can move material that is on the ground through the flow that is owned by the water. Rainwater capture and storage system at the modern heritage property. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the collection and storage of rain, rather than allowing it to run off. If the area is flat, puddles begin to form. The watershed version is a catchment model which includes the slope model and estimates the sediment delivery to channels. Fig. The WEPP watershed model is made up of four major components: hillslope, channel, impoundment, and irrigation. (2006) Aquatic Ecology (Dec. 2006), Volume 40. Retrieved from: Springer Link link.springer.com. The soil profiles in most of Iowa are now filled to capacity with water. For some locations, diverting this water is necessary to prevent soil erosion and to prevent chemicals and … Rainfall causes erosion of exposed areas in two ways; rain splash and transportation. For the case of rill detachment, where Dc is the detachment capacity by flow and Tc (kg/s/m) is the sediment transport capacity in the rill. Have been established taking into account actors' opinions (Grau, 2003). Erosion caused by run-off rain water near Ponta d'Ana, Algarve, Portugal. Rainwater is collected from a roof-like surface and redirected to a tank, cistern, deep pit (well, shaft, or borehole), aquifer, or a reservoir with percolation.Dew and fog can also be collected with nets or other tools. On the other hand, air pollution is measured using the PM10 standard, which consists largely of silt-sized particles, and the PM2.5 standard, which captures mainly clay size particles. Conservation Measures. 4. Specialized erosion control practices have been developed for use within stream channels, forest areas, and construction sites. Lobb, in Encyclopedia of Ecology, 2008. Depending on the type of force, erosion can occur rapidly or require thousands of years. Representation of watershed in WEPP erosion model. Liquid water is the major agent of erosion on Earth. One of the most effective means of reducing erosion is to maintain a vegetative or residue cover on the soil surface. It should be noted that finer textured soils (those with more silt and clay sized particles) are often less erodible than sandy soils. (2015) presented an analysis of published data on soil erosion rates (in units of mass per area and time), considering about 4000 sites worldwide. This section introduces you to weathering and erosion, both important parts of the rock cycle. These channels, when united, create other even larger channels, which progressively form grooves, ditches and, finally, larger caverns called"gullies". Fig. It affects agricultural land in much of Northern Africa and the Near East; parts of Southern, Central, and Eastern Asia; Australia; Northwest China; Southern South America; and North America. A hundred tons of particles per acre may be dislodged during a single rainstorm. These channels are also being polished by the entrainment of the particles, gradually increasing the size of the streams, which may cause large amounts of sediment to be dumped into streams and nearby rivers. The high variability of results caused by the soil conditions presents a strong contrast to the controlled rainfall applied to the plots. A watershed must be represented by at least one hillslope element. This results in significant economic loss, including replacing nutrients, recovering lost water, and recovering soil depth. In arid zones, rainfall erosion plays an important role in landscape sculpture. This means that large droplets carry hundreds of times more energy than droplets. The amount of hill … The concepts of stochastic weather generation, infiltration theory, hydrology, hydraulics, soil physics, plant science, and erosion mechanism have been used in this model. This water that travels across the land is called runoff. The erosion is very apparent when the walls are inclined. Rain erosion can also be identified through the formation of pedestals, which is generated by fragments of gravel, small wood chips or small fragments of tree branches. It is also known as raindrop erosion. Fig. Singh, in Developments in Water Science, 2003. 12.11. In this way, a single storm can remove one millimeter of dirt, which may seem insignificant, but translates to more than five tons per acre. Erosion has helped to form many notorious characteristics of the surface of the Earth, including mountain peaks, valleys and coasts. Conservation measures that have been effectively used to reduce soil erosion on agricultural areas include contouring, strip cropping, conservation tillage, terraces, buffer strips, and use of polyacrylamide on irrigated areas. Methods to control or reduce wind erosion are covered in Chapter 20. The main aim was to employ the current knowledge to develop a model as an alternative to USLE. A conceptual representation of a hillslope and a watershed for application of WEPP are shown in Fig. Secondly, these particles, when detached, move downhill with the layers of water that flow by dragging sediments. According to this study, conventional agriculture increase erosion rates enough to be considered an unsustainable practice. Erosion by Water . Hill slopes are prone to sheet erosion and rill erosion. This emphasizes the need for careful site selection, a thorough documentation of soil and site conditions as well as a sufficient number of experiments to achieve statistically significant and spatially representative results. Like water erosion, wind erosion has two phases: detachment and movement. This observation is supported by the wide range of sediment yield values, ranging from less than 10 g/m2 to over 700 g/m2, during the experiments. Water Erosion. Water erosion may occur within rills, interrill areas (the regions between rills), gullies, ephemeral gullies, stream channels, forest areas, and construction sites. The Rain erosion Is the manifestation of the action of rain on the earth's surface. "Erosion"(April, 2011) in Ecology Today Retrieved from: ecologiahoy.com. Excessive erosion can threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. The relative results have been taken into the IM for this criterion. The erosion done by water is called ablation. The Erosion of Reinforced Concrete Walls by the Flow of Rainwater Kawthar Hadja, and Fattoum Kharchi* (Received February 26, 2016, Accepted October 24, 2016, Published online February 28, 2017) Abstract: The action of rainwater on reinforced concrete walls has led to an erosion phenomenon. About 95% of soil is splashed by falling rain drops and runoff water erodes less than 5% of the soil. First, when the splash of rain, with its impact, hits the soil particles. Soil eroded in agricultural landscapes can also be delivered to the drainage network (Borselli et al., 2008), with direct consequences on the rates and magnitudes of floodplain sedimentation (Doolittle, 2006; Knox, 2006). The heavy impact of raindrops breaks down the land mass. Rill Erosion is the third stage of soil erosion. For details, reference may be made to Lane and Nearing (1989). Gilley, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005. Water erosion occurs when rainfall breaks soil aggregates causing detachment and displacement of soil, either directly by means of raindrop impact or indirectly through large bodies of water. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. For that the authors have considered this criterion as of the ‘more is worst’ kind. Eight criteria have been applied following field research, expert panels, social investigation, and personal interviews. Some water from the rain is evaporated or soaked up by plants other parts of the rain sinks into the soil. Sheet and rill erosion. Winds erosion, transport and deposit materials and are effective agents in several areas of this region. In case there is a reservoir within the catchment, the same can also be considered. 12.10 and 12.11. Gravity causes the water to flow from higher to lower ground. Rivers – Rivers can create a huge amount of erosion over time. The amount of soil loss is related to the soil texture and moisture content as well as the method of harvesting. Types of Soil Erosion Caused by Water: Soil erosion caused by water may be of the following kinds: (i) Splash erosion: ADVERTISEMENTS: The raindrops which fall at an approximate speed of 75 cms per second on ground strike it with a force of about 14 times its own weight. García-Ruiz et al. Rainfall erosion is caused by the detachment and movement of particles from the thin soil caused by the impact of raindrops on the ground. Using Barriers to Control Erosion Know that barriers are best left to professionals. In addition, heavier droplets travel at speeds higher than small droplets. Rainfall erosion is caused by the detachment and movement of particles from the thin soil caused by the impact of raindrops on the ground. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images Given that the erosion driving rainfall was almost equal during each test, the low soil loss observed during FOU 3 indicates that soil resistance to erosion has a strong control over wind-driven rain on the Jutland sands. It is able to account for spatial and temporal variations in topography, surface roughness, soil properties, crops, and landuse on hillslopes. Action appropriate to risk. According to Montgomery (2007), cultivated fields from different regions mostly erode at rates typical of Alpine terrains. As it increases, erosion by gullies, can also cut below the groundwater level. The function for interrill sediment delivery also includes terms to account for ground and canopy cover effects, which are discussed below. The WEPP landscape profile version model requires four input data files: a soil file, a slope profile file, a crop management file, and a climate file. The severity of water erosion is influenced by slope, soil type, soil water storage capacity, nature of the underlying rock, vegetation cover, and rainfall intensity and period. They have been considered in each subzone. Once the unsteady flow calculations are made to get the runoff peak rate and duration, quasi–steady state flow is assumed at the peak rate and is partitioned into broad sheet flow for interrill erosion and concentrated flow for rill erosion. Weathering can be summarized as the slow and systematic breakdown of stone, soil, and vegetation like wood as a result of contact with elements in the atmosphere such as rain, heat, cold, and wind. As we write this article spring rains are coming hard and fast causing substantial soil erosion when soils are most vulnerable because of degraded crop residue cover, soil preparation by tillage and no crop canopy. The flow of water underground is ground water. Nikolaus J. Kuhn, ... Wolfgang Fister, in Developments in Earth Surface Processes, 2014. Water erosion is caused by the detachment and transport of soil by rainfall, runoff, melting snow or ice, and irrigation. The model simulates erosion for some number of years and sums the total soil loss over those years for each point on the hillslope to obtain the average annual values of erosion along the hillslope. Water causes erosion through rainfall, rivers, ocean waves, or large floods. Specifically the model considers three erosion processes: detachment, transportation and deposition. This causes laminar erosion, as raindrops give off soil particles by the effect of kinetic energy. When this occurs, the groundwater drains and the water table falls. The mountain slope model simulates the erosion process from different types of land uses and treatment. Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and contribute to pollution from land surfaces. The profiles are at or near saturation. The main consequences are a loss of cultivable, fertile land, soil structure degradation, destruction of infrastructures, pollution of surface water, flood risk, etc. There are two stages of sheet erosion. These fine particles can have another effect as well. A brief description of the model is given here. "What is rain splash erosion and why is it important?"Exploration. "Management and Conservation of Soils"EUNED Editorial State University Distance (2001) Costa Rica. 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