A new theory aims to make sense of it all. (2004). To conclude, we consider some educational implications emerging from this growing body of research and suggest potential directions for future work. Sakamoto, K., Nakata, H., & Kakigi, R. (2009). Here, we show how small changes in Information Access Supporting the authors’ first hypothesis, data analysis showed gum chewers, compared to non-chewers, were more alert at the end of the study period. (e.g., Hirano & Onozuka, 2015; Johnson et al., 2013; Morgan et al., 2014; Sakamoto et al., 2009; Smith, 2010; Stephens & Tunney, 2004; Smith, 2010; Tucha et al., 2004; Tucha &, Simpson, 2011). This research was an experimental research using pre-test and post-test design. Supporting interest in a study domain: A longitudinal. amounts of information, there is less understanding of how human performance can be optimized in such interaction-driven contexts. Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deiatelnosti imeni I P Pavlova. The obtained data were analysed using the average comparison tests, which were t-test (for parametric data) and Wilcoxon test (for nonparametric data) with α value of 0.05. Japanese tertiary students (n = 614; Female = 129) undertaking a compulsory year-long study of English as a foreign language partici- pated. Ratings; Total Practice Test Questions Correct, Time to Solution, and Errors; Post-Lesson Alertness Ratings; and Total Test Questions Correct, ... Before comparing the means, the prerequisite test was taken beforehand. In the experimental trial, participants walked at natural paces for 15 minutes while chewing two gum pellets after a 1-hour rest period. However, performance on experimenter-administered working memory tasks in both verbal and visuospatial domains predicted unique variance in comprehension and arithmetic while controlling for scores on the participant-administered tasks. [Purpose] Although gum chewing while walking has been reported to increase walking speed and heart rate, its effect on energy expenditure remains unclear. problem-solving test consisting of twenty questions. Evaluation of CDs and chewing gum in, Allen, A. P., Jacob, T. J., & Smith, A. P. (2014). Although there is a lack of literature, investigating the effects of chewing gum on learning in classroom environments, the few, which have assessed in classroom environments have reported possible enhancing effects of, chewing gum on learning (Johnston et al., 2012; Wilson et al., 2016). A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of a 4-week program that integrated movements into cognitive tasks related to numerical skills. reliability was .60; and for time to solution, reliability was .89. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P < 0.001). Rate your feelings as they. Statistically significant differences were, found in test performance between the chewing gum and non-chewing gum conditions on, post-lesson test performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and alertness (Experiment 2). The first limitation is the relatively small sample, across the experiments of the present study. Recent research has demonstrated chewing gum can enhance various cognitive processes associated with learning, but most studies have used cognitive functioning tasks (e.g., selective attention and working memory) as outcomes. chewing gum; studying; alertness; test performance, Many of the studies investigating the effects of chewing gum on. Problem-solving performance during the Lesson Phase. questions correct were non-significant. Martin et al. min while chewing two sheets of gum (6.18 g) over a 10-minute period while at rest3). There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. 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