Show off your favorite photos and videos to the world, securely and privately show content to your friends and family, or blog the photos and videos you take with a cameraphone. These abnormalities have come to be considered by some to be “normal” in brachycephalic dogs (Canine Inherited Disorders Database 2004, Bedford and Jones 2001). This leads to corneal irritation and possibly to pigmentary keratitis and ulceration as discussed below. Selection for the distorted, brachycephalic head shape has resulted in the primary anatomical abnormalities that cause brachycephalic ocular syndrome. In S Petersen-Jones and S Crispin’s Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology. Accessed 31.1.11, The Kennel Club (UK) (2010) Breed Watch information for the Pekingese. PLoS ONE 5(3): e9632. Because the eyes of the Pekingese are so prominent and their eye socket is shallow they are at risk of damaging them and of prolapse (displacement) of the eyeball from the eye socket. Anyone wishing to obtain a Pekingese should ensure that it and its sire and dam are free of signs of brachycephalic ocular disease and that they have not had corrective surgery or medical treatment for the syndrome. Unless successfully treated, the conditions of brachycephalic ocular syndrome lead to constant irritation of the cornea and the surrounding tissues causing prolonged and persistent discomfort and, in some cases, severe pain. Figures 7 and 8. Animal Anatomical Memoirs No 19, The Wistar Institute. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Conference 2004. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, Gelatt K and Peterson Gelatt J (2001) Small animal ophthalmic surgery: practical techniques for the veterinarian. An independent report commissioned by the RSPCA. Various terms are used for the ocular problems commonly seen in brachycephalic dogs: macropalpebral fissure syndrome, medical canthus syndrome and exposure keratopathy syndrome, however here these are included under the umbrella term “brachycephalic ocular syndrome”, as this seems most appropriate and all encompassing. The Pekingese is well balanced and compact with an independent and courageous expression. Available from: www.hungarovet.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/.../chronic-tearstaining.pdf. This can lead to ulceration and discomfort. Identified by the UK Kennel club as part of their Breed Health and Conservation Plan. Pekingese have been deliberately bred to be deformed in two ways – their short legs and long back are chondrodysplastic and their short "pushed-in" face is brachycephalic. Epiphora may also appear as a reddish-brown spot under the eye. Rubin L (1989) Inherited eye diseases in purebred dogs. Accessed 1.2.11. Elsevier Health Sciences: Edinburgh, UK. Pekingese Eye Problems. Similar characteristics are shown, to varying degrees, by all brachycephalic breeds. My 3 year old pekingese "Honey" had her eye pop out of her eye socket when she was 4months old. In cases of entropion - the edge of the eyelid is rolled inwards causing the hairs on the eyelid to come in to contact with the cornea. Even the Peke’s own hair can be an irritant, and long hair should never be allowed to hang over his eyes. Methods and prospects for elimination of the problem, http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/ocular%20disorders/exposure%20keratopathy%20syndrome.htm, www.hungarovet.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/.../chronic-tearstaining.pdf, http://www.animaleyecare.net/diseases/macropalpebral.htm, http://www.the-kennel-club.org.uk/services/public/breeds/watch/display.aspx?breed=Pekingese, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0, Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS). In Practice 5: 203-206, The Kennel Club (UK) (2008) Pekingese Breed Standard. 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