Pulluvan 38. AMBEDKAR before theAnthropology Seminar ofDr.A.A.Goidenweiser, Columbia University, NewYork (America) on9thMay1916 PATRIKA PUBLICATIONS-*ROAD, JULLUNDUR 3(PUNJAB) INDIA. No. [17], The kallar domains in 1686, This was at Avur, where a line of Kallar chiefs known as the Kattalur and Perambur rajas gave their support to the missionaries' activities. Below you can see the major castes in Tamilnadu. "a fearless community show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation". These kavalkarars were given maniyam, rent-free land, to ensure they did their job correctly. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. The Kallar, along with the Maravar and Agamudayar, constitute a united social caste on the basis of parallel professions, though their locations and heritages are wholly separate from one another. Starting in 1755, the British army engaged in several brutal, bloody campaigns against the Kallars of Melur, but decades later Kallar raiding parties still posed a significant threat. [16], Bayly notes that the Kallar and Maravar identities as a caste, rather than as a title, "... were clearly not ancient facts of life in the Tamil Nadu region. [20], In 1755 AD, during a war with british kallars used a eighteen meters spears. Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are educationally or socially disadvantaged. [5], Maikondan was a chief of the caste of kallans lived in 17 th-century. "Kallar" is a Tamil word meaning "thief". Hegde directed him to approach the DC of Dakshina Kannada. [6] According to Bayly, Kallar should be considered a "title of rural groups in Tamil Nadu with warrior-pastoralist ancestral traditions". We can find sacrifice and warlike Mukulathor (Kallar,Maravar, Agamudiyar) people against the Britishers and they were chronicled ubiquitously in old records and Government gazettes. , Maharashtra [20], Around the beginning of the 20th century, the cultivators, of many communities, near Madurai staged an anti-Kallar movement against the community's authority. Caste definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. [20], Reforms in 1816 abolished the responsibility kavalkarars had towards compensation for damaged crops while keeping fees, which British sources claimed led to the kavalkarars charging exorbitant fees. Kallar (or Kallan, formerly spelled as Colleries) is one of the three related castes of southern India which constitute the Mukkulathor (Thevar) confederacy. List of Sub Castes of BCs -Useful BC Sub caste Information to fill X Class Child Aadhar Proforma (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); BC-A Palli BC-A Jalari BC-A Goondla BC-A Gangaputra BC-A Gangavar BC-A Vanyakulakshatriya BC-A Pallikapu BC-A Pattapu BC-A Mangala BC-A Banda BC-A Mondivaru BC-A Korcha BC-A Jogi BC-A Jangam BC-A Dasari BC-A … 19.10.94 2 Aranedan -do- 3 Asur -do- 4 Badhai, Barhai, Bindhania, Sutradhar, Badhira and Badhria -do- 5 Badasuda -do- 6 Baipari -do- 7 Baira -do- 8 … Nalakeyava 34. , Maharashtra NAMATHARI PILLAI or OPC Pillai Some Saiva Pillais Converted To Vaishnavism. The surnames are influenced by religion, profession, region, caste etc. The kallar, although formerly a "criminal caste" regard them selves as Ksatriyas, because there are Kallar kings. KHATIK 5. … You can also add your surname to this list if it is not listed below. and date *1: Bahach Hanjie and Shikara Wallas (excluding house-boat owners) 12011/7/95-BCC dated 24 April … An 18th century etching of cultivators fishing in a res… The northern parts of Tamilnadu Behind Kongu nadu was called as Kallar Nadu (Thanjavur, Trichy, Pudukkottai and part of Madurai.) List of Backward Classes Sl.No Name of the Caste 1. Vanniyar is the most populated caste in Tamilnadu state. He was a brave warrior who ruled areas around Nandavanapatti in Thanjavur. Meenavar ( Parvatharajakulam, Pattanavar, Sembadavar) ( including … [18], Just 50 Kallan warriors defeated the Nawab's army of 10,000 in the battle of Chunampatti, Thanjavur per a British account of 1734. 11 barber/nai 12 cheetamdr 13 cheltian 14 chetiar 15 chettiar 16 cristan 17 dada achi 18 deyar 19 dhoby 20 dilai 21 f.c. [14], Most palayakkars in western Tirunelveli and in Ramanathapuram were "Maravar", those of Madurai, Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur "Kallar", and those of eastern Tirunelveli, Dindigal and Coimbatore "Nayak". This is a list of notable people who belong to the Brahmin caste Historical figures. A.VISHWANATHAM says. The Urali Gounder are a sub-set of the Gounder caste of India. Download this castes list for free for educational and research purposes. Phone No : 01123073567. bc d sub caste list; bc d sub caste list in ap; bc d sub caste Telangana; bc sub caste list in telangana in telugu; bc-d caste means; Filed Under: Information. 62 Kammalar or Viswakarama, Viswakammala (including Thattar, Porkollar, Kannar Karumar Kollar, Thacher, Kalthacher Kamsala and Viswabrahmin) 12011/68/93-BCC(C ) dt 10.09.93 12011 / 21/ 95 … Do you want to know the caste of all Tamil actors? [13], Based on his historical research on a south Indian Hindu kingdom ruled by members of the Kallar caste, Dirks argues that "while the brahman was superior to the king as Kallar, he was inferior to the Kallar as king. Agamudayar including Thozhu or Thuluva Vellala 2. The entire household responsibility is given to kallar women. Want to know your favorite Tamil actors caste list and community details? Mundala 33. The reasons for the movement are complex: partly the abuse of authority shown by Kallar watchmen, partly agrarian distress, and part-personal feud. , Delhi There are 292 Schools under the administrative control of this office to uplift the Education Standard of Piramalai Kallars. Moger (Other than Mogeyar) 32. state wise list of castes state tamil nadu code caste 1 addi dirvisa 2 akamow door 3 ambacam 4 ambalam 5 ambalm 6 asari 7 asari 8 asooy 9 asrai 10 b.c. If you are not able to view the document: Click here to: Note:- If the script is disabled, PDF preview function will get affected in some browsers . Do you want to know the caste of all Tamil actors? 37 Adi Dravida 38 Adi Karnataka 39 Ajila 40 Ayyanavar (in Kanyakumari District and Shenkottah Taluk of Tirunelveli District) 41 Baira 42 Bakuda 43 Bandi 44 Bellara 45 Bharatar (in Kanyakumari District and Shenkottah Taluk of Tirunelveli District) 46 Chalavadi 47 Chamar, Muchi 48 Chandala 49 Cheruman 50 Devendrakulathan 51 Dom, … … Email : an.pareek@nic.in. Nayadi 36. of India, Ministry of Welfare/ Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment (S.J. These nadus were well outside Nayaka control, and folk songs told of fields that could not be harvested and raids by Kallar parties, who were considered sovereign and independent, in Madurai city. [24], By the late 18th century, the Kallars were working as kavalkarars, or watchmen, in hundreds of villages throughout southern Tamil Nadu, especially the region west of Madurai. 11 barber/nai 12 cheetamdr 13 cheltian 14 chetiar 15 chettiar 16 cristan 17 dada achi 18 deyar 19 dhoby 20 dilai 21 f.c. Kallar (including Easanattu Kallar Gandarvakkottai Kallar Koottappal Kallar Piramalai Kallar and Periasooriyur Kallar) -do- 60 Kalveli Gounder -do- 61 Kambar 12011/68/93-BCC(C ) dt 10.09.93 . They were a warlike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. 171. In 1803, these rights were abolished by the East India Company and the militias were abolished. , Himachal Pradesh Kallar Kallar (Tamil: கள்ளர்) (meaning "Brave Peoples"), Estimated Population 65,00,000 (10% of Tamil population), The Imperial clan is one of the three castes which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy. SCHEDULED CASTES IN TAMIL NADU No. and was governed by kallar Polygors, Ambalakarar is the most important Peoples. [27], The Kallar were traditionally a non-vegetarian people,[28] though a 1970s survey of Tamil Nadu indicated that 30% of Kallar surveyed, though non-vegetarian, refrained from eating fish after puberty. Give Your Details. Get in touch * The Complaints / Grievances relating to OBC's. BAURI 35. Nais (including Sub Caste “Kuleen Brahman”) * 3059/WG(C)56/8/26 dated 10/12-11-1956-do-*14352-WG-II-58/19938 (3496 ch) dated 24/27-11-1958: 23: Kamboj: 9139-WG-11-59/38383 dated 9/23-12-1959 : For five years: 14755-4WG-1/64/28528 dated 24-12-1964: Till further order: 2763-4WGI-65/2431 dated 1-3-1965: Upto 9-12-1966: 1470-SW (Asc)67/1287 dated 29-5-1967: Upto 8-12-1968: 4075-SW-6 … This is a list of notable people who belong to the Brahmin caste Historical figures. OBC LIST (CENTRAL) Sl. & da 1 Agamudayar including Thozhu or Thuluva Vellala 12011/68/93-BCC(C ) dt 10.09.93 2 Alwar, Azhavar and Alavar (in Kanniyakumari district and Sheoncottah Taulk of Tirunelveli district ) -do- 3 Ambalakarar, Ambalakaran -do- 4 Andi pandaram -do- 5 Arayar, Arayan, Nulayar & E) 1 2 3 1 Agharia, Agaria, Aghria No. BAHELIA 32. Today's Message: For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf, & the strength of the Wolf is the Pack. , Rajasthan Persecuted by the Thanjavur Marathas, the Christians surrendered to the kallar people in March 1745 in the Gunnampatti area of Thanjavur district. 'Kallar' Kallar: Kallars are one of the three related castes which constitute the Mukkulathor confederacy. 22 gomolu 23 goundel 24 hariagens 25 iyar 26 kadambram 27 kallar 28 kamalar 29 kandyadr 30 kirishmam … Look it up now! Start your review of A South Indian Sub-Caste: Social Organization and Religion of the Pramalai Kallar Write a review Sep 20, 2019 Dinesh Dinesh added it The Kallar community has been included in BCM 1A list in Dakshina Kannada and caste certificates issued accordingly. The majority of those poligars, who during the late 17th- and 18th-centuries controlled much of the Telugu region as well as the Tamil area, had themselves come from the Kallar, Maravar and Vatuka communities. Download this castes list for free for educational and research purposes. Name : Arvind Pareek . and was governed by kallar Polygors, Ambalakarar is the most important Peoples. [19], British sources often characterized the Kallars, and the related castes, as "soldiers out of work." FILLING THE COMMUNITY – SUB CASTE CODE IN THE APPLICATION & CODING SHEET 34 ANNEXURE LIST OF BACKWARD CLASSES, MOST BACKWARD CLASSES, DENOTIFIED COMMUNITIES THROUGHOUT THE STATE OF TAMIL NADU UNLESS AND OTHERWISE SPECIFIED BACKWARD CLASSES 1. 12011/94 – BCC dt. The front page. However, the kaval system was not abolished but placed under the supervision of the East India Company. Pallan 37. Your email address will not be published. List of Scheduled Caste in West Bengal 1. [clarification needed] The anthropologist Susan Bayly notes that both the Kallar and Maravar communities are relatively new caste entities. [11][12] Also the Pallavarayar rulers of pudukkottai belongs to kallar lineage. , India, Nanded The agitations took the form of violence against the Kallars, including arson, and forcing them out of the villages. Nalkadaya 35. According to the minister, the contention of Veerashaiva-Lingayats is that at present, only 16 sub-castes of Veerashaiva-Lingayats are considered in OBC in the central list, which is wrong. II (A) SCHEDULED CASTES ARUNTHATHIYARS 1 Adi Andhra 5 Arunthathiyar 12 Chakkiliyan 37 Madari 38 Madiga 48 Pagadai 67 Thoti III (A). It is an obstacle to national unity that gradually corrodes away and disintegrates the social fabric. When the reservoirs start to dry up during the dry seasons, cultivators caught fish using baskets made of sticks as shown in the illustration here from Robert Knox. [22] In July 1759, Madurai kallars fought against british and 500 kallars were hanged to death in Thiruparankundram. More info. Pambada 39. Tamil Nadu Caste Wise Population & Ethnic Groups. [25] Writing in 1957, Louis Dumont noted that despite the weapon's frequent mention in literature, it had disappeared amongst the Piramalai Kallar. [20], Among the traditional customs of the Kallar noted by colonial officials was the use of the "collery stick" (Tamil: valai tādi, kallartādi), a bent throwing stick or "false boomerang" which could be thrown up to 100 yards (91 m). This list is provided for free by the courtesy of Matchfinder Matrimony Castes and Subcastes List in Andhra Pradesh: State Id State Name Castecode Caste Subcaste 16 ANDHRA PRADESH 16001 ABDUL 16 ANDHRA PRADESH 16002 ACHARI 16 ANDHRA PRADESH 16003 ADIANDRA 16 ANDHRA PRADESH 16004 AILCEEJ 16 ANDHRA PRADESH 16005 ARCHAKULU 16 ANDHRA … Sikha Caste Systems - different caste and subastes system in sikh. [23], During carnatic wars in 1763, british force under colonel heron looted the treasures of perumal temple in Thirumohoor. In the year of 1662, Bijapur sultans invaded Thanjavur. … Here, we list down some of the more conspicuous discrepancies well afforded by the caste division. Servai(except Tiruchirapalli, Karur, Perambalur and Pudukottai Districts.) Send your contributions to indianhindunames@gmail.com. Abbott = One who worship and spread teachings of Sanatan Dharam (Hinduism) Achari = Derived from Asari (Malayalam). (previous page) () , India, Pune Also, they are … , India, Gurgaon KEOT, KEYOT 3. Even so, this small amount of meat was sufficient to affect perceptions of Kallar social status. [4], The anthropologist Susan Bayly notes that the name Kallar, was a title bestowed by Tamil palaiyakkarars (warrior-chiefs) on pastoral peasants who acted as their armed retainers. Today's Message: For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf, & the strength of the Wolf is the Pack. BAGDI, DULEY 31. , India, Nashik (Nasik) Required fields are … Here is our list of Indian surnames and their origin/ meaning. [6] Prior to the late 18th-century, their exposure to Brahmanic Hinduism, the concept of varna and practices such as endogamy that define the Indian caste system was minimal. National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) has been assigned duties under Section (5) of The Constitution (One Hundred And Second Amendment) Act, 2018 which are as follows: “(5) It shall be … [5] Kallar is synonymous with the western Indian term, Koli, having connotations of thievery but also of upland pastoralism. Agaram Vellan Chettiar 3. History of Vellalars and its Sub Castes Authenticated by Sangam Litterature and Wikipedia: ... (Mukkulathore -Ahamudayar, Maravar, Kallar) There Is A Strong Possiblity That These Chola Nattu Thevars Freely Mingled With All Vellala Community Of Chola Kingdom, And Made A Great Variety Of Non Veg Pillai's. KHAIRA 4. This situation persisted past the downfall of the Nayakas and the advent of Yusuf Khan, until the mid 18th century. Ms. No.28, BC & MBCW Department dated : 19-7-94. In 1801, they networked with palegars of Tamil and Telugu regions to spearhead a series of revolts against British control. Jammu and Kashmir. Kallars were often also hired as mercenaries by palaiyakarars, who according to British sources, used them to loot villagers. state wise list of castes state tamil nadu code caste 1 addi dirvisa 2 akamow door 3 ambacam 4 ambalam 5 ambalm 6 asari 7 asari 8 asooy 9 asrai 10 b.c. And as the castes are [a] very state or regional specific phenomenon and have different names from state to state, different states have categorised the castes under Scheduled list, or OBC (other backward castes) or MBC (Most Backward Castes); these have been contested and want to be shifted this way or the other. The Thevar people (Thevar literally means celestial beings divine natured-people) [1] collectively forms the Mukkulathor (English: people of the three clans).Mukkulathors are a group of Tamil aristocratic warrior/martial people, [2] native to the Southern districts of Tamil Nadu.The Mukkulathors descended from the three royal lineage … State : Tamil Nadu Entry No. [29] Meat, though present in the Kallar diet, was not frequently eaten but restricted to Saturday nights and festival days. But travancore with the help of Muhammad Yusuf Khan repulsed the forces of vadagarai and kallars. They are populated largely in Trichy, Pudukottai, Perambalur, Karur, Dindigul, Salem,Sivagangai, Madurai,Coimbatore,Ariyalur,Tanjavur,Theni and Namakal of Tamil Nadu state. Here is the Tamil Actors Caste, Community and Religion Tamil Actors Caste List, Community and Religion Actor Ajith Kumar Caste: Brahmin Actor Aravind Akash Caste: Brahmin Actor Archana Caste: Scheduled caste Actor Arjun Sarja caste: Kuruba Gowdas (Karnataka Caste) Actor Arulnithi Caste: Isai Velalar […] Caste Searching; Home. , Tamil Nadu The list is extensive and contains castes from different states in India. They are predominantly found in Thanjavur, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli, Pudukkottai, Sivagangai and Theni Districts. Kallar, Easanattu kallar, Gandharva Kottai Kallars(except Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur and pudukottai Districts) Kootappal Kallars ... ( except in Kanniyakumari District and Shencottah Taluk of Tirunelveli District where the Community is Scheduled Caste ) ( including converts to Christianity) 117. Although British claims that Kallar watchmen were operating a "protection racket" were exaggerated, the Kallar watchmen still had the power of violence over the cultivators who paid them. Of this, 11,857,504 (19 per cent) are Scheduled Castes (SCs). Kallar (or Kallan, formerly spelled as Colleries) is one of the three related castes of southern India which constitute the Mukkulathor (Thevar) confederacy. Reader Interactions. LIST OF MOST BACKWARD CLASSES Code No. Want to know your favorite Tamil actors caste list and community details? , India, Ranchi A common allegation made by colonial officials was that these kavalkarars were "abusing" their position and exploiting the peasants whose livelihoods they were supposed to protect. Download this castes list for free for educational and research purposes. CENTRAL LIST OF OBC FOR THE STATE OF TAMILNADU E N. C/Cmm Rsoluti No. Visitor No. KAUR 2. It retards social solidarity by spoiling social harmony, integrity, and feelings of brotherliness. 4. Reply. By the end of the 19th century, the watchmen formed a "shadow administration." ANNEXURE LIST SHOWING THE SCHEDULED CASTES, SCHEDULED TRIBES, MOST BACKWARD CLASSES & DENOTIFIED COMMUNITIES, BACKWARD CLASSES, BACKWARD CLASSES CHRISTIANS AND BACKWARD CLASSES MUSLIMS, IN THE STATE OF TAMILNADU UNLESS AND OTHERWISE … [21] In 1759 AD, vadagarai poligar of Tirunelveli attacked Travancore with the assistance from kallars. BANTAR 34. [9], The Thondaiman dynasty of the erstwhile Pudukkottai state hailed from the Kallar community. In recent years, since 1958, these have been referred to as Southern-style Kalaripayattu, although they are distinct from the ancient martial art of Kalaripayattu itself that was historically the style found in Kerala.[31]. Also, they are found … Dr.B.R.AMBEDKAR OPEN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY HYDERABAD-500 033 Printed at … But kallars fought with british and saved the treasures of temple. Sub Cast. Many Kallars had been warriors as well as peasants for the last few centuries. This page is maintained by. These kaval maniyams were commonly held by palaiyakarars who used land, and shares of the crops, to maintain a small militia. Caste / Community 1 Agamudayar including Thozhu or Thuluva Vellala 2 Alwar, Azhavar and Alavar (in Kanniyakumari district and Sheoncottah Taulk of Tirunelveli district ) 3 Ambalakarar, Ambalakaran(including servai) 4 Andi pandaram 5 Arayar, Arayan, Nulayar (in Kanniyakumari district and Shencottah taluk of Tirunelveli district) 6 Archakari Vellala 7… Comments. 1 Ambalakarar 2 Andipandaram 2A Arayar (in Kanyakumari District) 3 Bestha, Siviar 4 Bhatraju (Other than Kshatriya Raju) 5 Boyar, Oddar Dasari 7 Dommara Famous quotes containing the words list of, list and/or castes: “ Religious literature has eminent examples, and if we run over our private list of poets, critics, philanthropists and philosophers, we shall find them infected with this dropsy and elephantiasis, which we ought to have tapped. [15], During Tirumala Nayaka rule, Kallar caste which controlled the outlying areas of madurai, was incorporated to the madurai kingdom because of its close association with vishnu in the form of Kallazhagar. A South Indian Sub-Caste: Social Organization and Religion of the Pramalai Kallar By Louis Dumont , Alice Morton , Michael Moffat and Lewis Morton Retrieved 0 of 20 bookstores An 'Entry' for this purpose includes caste, its synonyms and sub-castes. Kallar Reclamation Scheme – Government Kallar Reclamation Schools The Kallar Reclamation Scheme is implemented in Madurai, Dindigul and Theni District under the control of the Joint Director (Kallar Reclamation), Madurai from the Education Department. The Nayaks attempted to pacify or subjugate them by titling Kallar chieftains, with limited success. LIST OF SCHEDULED CASTES IN THE KERALA STATE ... Malayan (In the areas comprising the Malabar District as specified by sub section (2) of section 5 of the State Re-organisation Act, 1956 (37 of 1956) 30. , Jharkhand , Karnataka [1] The Kallar, along with the Maravar and Agamudayar, constitute a united social caste on the basis of parallel professions, though their locations and heritages are wholly separate from one another. [2] Alternatively, the term 'Kallar' can mean "Master" or "Landlord",[3] Other proposed etymological origins include "black skinned", "hero", and "toddy-tappers". Contact. Of course, there are mistakes of a few castes going below or … There are Seventy-six (76) different caste within SC such as Adi Dravida, Pallar, Paraiyar, Chakkiliyar, Arunthathiyar, Kavara, Kootan, Kakkalan, Thandan, Paravan, Panan, Mannan,Ayyanavar, Bharatar, Pathiyan, Vannan, Padannan, Vetan, Vettuvan…) Adi Dravidar are the largest SC population of 5,402,755 making 45.6% of total TN SC population. Mannan, Pathiyan, Perumannan, Vannan, Velan 31. Kallar chieftaincies, organized into networks of nadus, controlled the region north and west of Madurai. Caste / Community 1 Agamudayar including Thozhu or Thuluva Vellala 2 Alwar, Azhavar and Alavar (in Kanniyakumari district and Sheoncottah Taulk of Tirunelveli district ) 3 Ambalakarar, Ambalakaran(including servai) 4 Andi pandaram 5 Arayar, Arayan, Nulayar (in Kanniyakumari district and Shencottah taluk of Tirunelveli district) 6 … Referred By (type Broker id or Nill) By Caste. A wild elephant was found dead at a rubber plantation in a forest fringe area in Kallar on Saturday. Here is the Tamil Actors Caste, Community and Religion Tamil Actors Caste List, Community and Religion Actor Ajith Kumar Caste: Brahmin Actor Aravind Akash Caste: Brahmin Actor Archana Caste: Scheduled caste Actor Arjun Sarja caste: Kuruba Gowdas (Karnataka Caste) Actor Arulnithi Caste: Isai … When the inland reservoirs and tanks that irrigated the rice paddies were full, cultivators fished in them using bait and tackle and nets. iwant veerashivalingayath go copy. The Urali Gounder are a sub-set of the Gounder caste of India. [15], Ananda Ranga Pillai mentioned in his one of the diary note, that French government asked him to write letters to palayakkars and chiefs of tamil nadu for gaining support from them against british. Looking for Bride/Groom district Your Horoscope (jpg|png File Type) Register By. Both names were originally granted to people as titles by poligars (local chieftains) but the holders were not exposed to caste-defining influences such as Brahmanic Hinduism , the concept of varna and practices such as endogamy until the … & Date of Govt. Some prominent castes among Sikhs are Arora, Khatri, Ramgarhia, Jat, Saini, Kamboh, Mahton, Chhimba, Mohyal , Chamar, etc. Kallar women are known for their bravery also. KOCH In 1918, the community was placed on the list of Criminal Tribes. , India, Master of Business Administration (M.B.A), Chennai [10] Kallars living in the districts of Trichy, Thanjavur, Thiruvarur and Pudukkottai are using around thousand family titles like Cholangathevar, Mazhavarayar, Kadavarayar, Pallavarayar, Tondaiman, Sambuvarayar, Vandayar, Rajaliyar, Mutharaiayar etc. This is a list of Muslim communities that have been granted Other Backward Classes status by the Government of India in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. 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